Numerele anterioare

2, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71,
 

Lunile anterioare


 

Autor


 

The Taiwanese Miracle

Anton CARAGEA

Today, Taiwan first of all stands for amazing economic success, which pushed the country to the forefront of the Asian economic miracle, as one of the Asian Tigers, alongside South Korea and Japan.
But what many of us don't know is that this economic miracle has a history of political survival and development which is at least as interesting as that of its economic development.
The Taiwanese lesson is not, as many may be tempted to believe, merely the lesson of the highest standards of living in Asia after Japan, but also a tale rich in historical significance for Romanian readers.



How the Taiwanese identity was built

A frequent misconception is that the history of Taiwan begins only in 1949, with the establishment of the Republic of China by General Chiang Kai-shek. By no means so. The Taiwanese identity had been built long before, ever since 1624, when the Dutch East India Company settled here. They found an interesting population, with impressive traditions and a vibrant cultural life. The Portuguese also arrived here, attracted by rumours of richness, and give the island a name that remains well-known to this day: Ilha Formosa – Beautiful Island. In 1662, the island saw its first contact with mainland China, which was invaded by the Manchu people, so part of the old mainland Chinese administration was forced to take refuge on the island, accompanied by an army led by Jheng Chen Gong.
In 1683 the direct Manchu rule over the island is established, after  Taiwan was invaded by continental Chinese troops. But the Manchu rule was short-lived, as China faced major domestic weaknesses that make Japan the main beneficiary of Manchu China.
In 1894 Japan attacks the Chinese Army in the Korean Peninsula, wins a landslide victory and, under the Treaty of Simonosheki, it takes over the Korean Peninsula and the Formosa Island (today's Taiwan). The Japanese rule led to the development of a local intellectual and economic elite. Economic development was impressive, with agriculture, communications and constructions witnessing an outstanding growth.
At the end of World War II, Taiwan already had a special economic and political status, and in 1943, in the Declaration of Cairo, the US President, Franklin Roosevelt, the British Premier W. Churchill and President-general of China, Chiang Kai-shek, agreed that at the end of the conflict Taiwan would lawfully become part of China.

A general loses a country, but wins a nation

In September 1945, when Japan surrendered to the Allies, General Chiang Kai-shek had enough reasons to be happy: he had managed to keep the Japanese at bay for eight years (1937-1945), had reunited China and gave fresh hopes to the people, through a reform programme and a Western-style party: Kuomintang (KMT- the Nationalist Party).
But what the General didn't know was that the Soviet Union was already making plans to get control over China. To divert his attention, Stalin suggested the signature of a Treaty of Friendship with China, and the General was deceived into accepting the poisoned apple.
Meanwhile, two million soldiers were armed and trained by the Soviets in Mongolia and Manchuria, which had been occupied by the USSR at the end of the war, as Japan had fallen. As Chiang Kai-shek was sending his troops at home and preparing for ambitious land reforms, USSR was preparing to strike, through the Chinese Communist Party and Mao Zedong. The 1948 communist attack was hard and fast: from the Korean Peninsula to the Mongolian desert, armoured and cavalry units backed by USSR dealt a terrible blow at Kuomintang. In 1949, the defeat was inevitable, and two million supporters of Kuomintang, along with the remaining troops of General Chiang Kai-shek and the Parliament of China took refuge in Taiwan. The General had lost a country, but won a nation: Taiwan.

The dream of return

The General remained haunted by the dream of re-conquering China, until his death in 1975. He wanted the name of the state on the Taiwan Island to be the Republic of China. He kept preparing for his return to China, maintained a Chinese government and parliament for China as a whole. Moreover, he would not accept China’s new borders, with Afghanistan, Pakistan and Mongolia.
In 1971, when Richard Nixon initiated the rapprochement with Beijing, China’s rightful seat in the Security Council was taken over from the government in Taipei by the one in Beijing. It is then that the General gave his famous speech, “The sky is too small for two Suns,” and withdrew from the United Nations. Death came as liberation for the General in 1975.     
Although he had focused entirely on China, the General placed Taiwan on the path of economic success: economic freedom, aid from the USA, a daring land reform and the Programme of 10 Major Projects, which paved the way for a modern infrastructure—all these contributed to the Taiwanese miracle.

Towards democracy and development

The 1975-1985 decade was a time of fast development, which turned Taiwan into an outstanding example of economic progress. The secrets of a strong and prosperous Taiwan included State-funded loans, supported given to ten major private banks, an export-centred economy and amazing performances in the farming sector.
Since 1988, Taiwan has kept firm on the path of fast democratisation. Today, it already has a track record of 20 years of free elections and vibrant parliamentary activity, which made Freedom House rank it, in 2007, as the best functioning democracy in Asia, even better than Japan.
The national reserve is USD 290 billion, the gross domestic product per capita is USD 15,291, and the four per cent unemployment rate is the lowest in Asia.
Today, Taiwan has a functioning democracy, free press, a vigorous political life and, thanks to all these, a middle class that covers over 48 per cent of the total population.
The obsession with China has virtually faded out from Taiwan’s political life. The new President, Ma Ying-jeou, announced a new foreign policy track, dubbed “flexible,” which eliminates tensions with China.
In fact, air connections between the two states have been resumed, contacts between the inhabitants of Taiwan and China are no longer prohibited, Taiwan has invested over USD 200 billion in the Chinese economy, which was one of the chief factors contributing to China’s economic growth.
Taiwan has taken part in this year’s Olympic Games, and medium-level delegations of the two countries have met several times this year. The time of tensions between the two sides of the Taiwan Strait seems to be over.

Romania-Taiwan: amazing similarities

What astonishes Romanian observers is the similarity between Taiwan and Romania in terms of national history. Both have a population of about 23 million, advanced cultures, both stayed for quite a long time in the shadow of a threatening neighbour (Russia in the case of Romania, China for Taiwan), both find support in their cooperation with the United States, in the NATO accession for Romania and with the USA directly for Taiwan, both shifted to democracy in 1989, both witnessed a shift in power in 2000 (the return of the Social Democratic Party in power in Romania, after the C.D.R. government, and the assumption of power by the Democratic Progressive Party in Taiwan) and a new change in 2008, when the Nationalist Kuomintang party came back in power in Taipei and a change in government occurred in Romania. Unfortunately, we are still far from Taiwan’s economic vitality, but Romania may become a Black Sea Tiger, if it learns from the Taiwanese experience: infrastructure, support for exports, investments in culture and technology, honesty and hard work.

Taiwan–a secure future

Close to 60 years since its establishment, Taiwan is about to become a member of the United Nations. It is already a member of several UN agencies, it provides humanitarian and development aid to 17 countries, and President Ma Ying-jeou has already made remarkable headway towards the recognition of the Taiwanese identity and of the Republic of Taiwan.
Moreover, with Taiwan as a symbol of democracy in the region, many analysts have reasons to hope that the dream of democracy in the Asian world stands growing chances to come true. The Taiwanese example has proved that a Buddhist country can build a viable democracy, that Confucianism can go hand in hand with the values of free markets and human rights, and that Asia can step on the path of economic development and democratic construction.
The experience of Taiwan is an example that Asia cannot afford to overlook.
Publicat în : English  de la numărul 61

Comentarii

Comentariul nr.1 - Michael Turton a spus în 19.11.2008 21:33:00:
This article is well meant, but much of it is completely wrong:

++++++++
A frequent misconception is that the history of Taiwan begins only in 1949, with the establishment of the Republic of China by General Chiang Kai-shek.
++++++++

The Republic of China was established in 1911. Chiang Kai-shek moved the government to Taiwan in 1949 after losing the civil war to the Communists.

+++++++++++++++
By no means so. The Taiwanese identity had been built long before, ever since 1624, when the Dutch East India Company settled here. They found an interesting population, with impressive traditions and a vibrant cultural life. The Portuguese also arrived here, attracted by rumours of richness, and give the island a name that remains well-known to this day: Ilha Formosa – Beautiful Island.
++++++++++++++

The Portugese visited Taiwan but never established any presence here. The Spanish established themselves in the north and were evicted by the Dutch in 1642.

The Chinese were not found here by the Dutch (there were only a few seasonal settlers) but came over here as the Dutch established a government on the island.

++++++++
In 1662, the island saw its first contact with mainland China, which was invaded by the Manchu people, so part of the old mainland Chinese administration was forced to take refuge on the island, accompanied by an army led by Jheng Chen Gong.
++++++++

This is totally wrong. Zheng Chenggong was not Manchu but half Han, half-Japanese, and used Taiwan as the base for his own Kingdom after the Manchus defeated him. He opposed the Manchus and the Dutch, but permitted the English to set up a trading post in Taiwan.

++++++++
At the end of World War II, Taiwan already had a special economic and political status, and in 1943, in the Declaration of Cairo, the US President, Franklin Roosevelt, the British Premier W. Churchill and President-general of China, Chiang Kai-shek, agreed that at the end of the conflict Taiwan would lawfully become part of China.
+++++++++

This is also incorrect. The Cairo Declaration is simply a statement of war aims and has no international legal effect. The US could not give Taiwan away because it did not own it, and China could not accept it because it had no right to. Nothing lawful occurred with the Cairo Declaration.

In law, Japan owned Taiwan from 1895 until April of 1952, when the San Francisco Peace Treaty came into effect. At that point, Japan gave up Taiwan''s sovereignty and no power was named as recipient. This was intentional, and today it is the policy of the US that Taiwan''s status is undetermined.

++++++++++
Party and Mao Zedong. The 1948 communist attack was hard and fast: from the Korean Peninsula to the Mongolian desert, armoured and cavalry units backed by USSR dealt a terrible blow at Kuomintang. In 1949, the defeat was inevitable, and two million supporters of Kuomintang, along with the remaining troops of General Chiang Kai-shek and the Parliament of China took refuge in Taiwan. The General had lost a country, but won a nation: Taiwan.
++++++++++++

Also totally wrong. Chiang lost because he was both incompetent and corrupt. Chiang did not win Taiwan but stole it. His occupation of the island in 1945 was under the authority of the wartime allies. Chiang''s forces subsequently looted the island, sparking a massive revolt in 1947 during which Chiang had the island''s leadership killed or imprisoned. The political killings went on for years afterwards.


+++++++++++
Although he had focused entirely on China, the General placed Taiwan on the path of economic success: economic freedom, aid from the USA, a daring land reform and the Programme of 10 Major Projects, which paved the way for a modern infrastructure—all these contributed to the Taiwanese miracle.
+++++++++++

This is mostly myth. In the 1950s and well into the 1960s, the military took 90% of the government budget, and it was US aid to the local economy that paid for the government debt, supported infrastructure development, and underpinned the Miracle Economy. Chiang opposed economic opening, opposed giving the Taiwanese access to capital and markets, and opposed many of the reform ideas of US aid administrators.


++++++++++++++
The obsession with China has virtually faded out from Taiwan’s political life. The new President, Ma Ying-jeou, announced a new foreign policy track, dubbed “flexible,” which eliminates tensions with China.
+++++++++++++

It is hard to imagine how this could ever have been written. China remains a central fact and problem in Taiwanese political life, with 1300 missiles pointed at Taiwan, and promising to murder Taiwanese in order to annex their island. Ma''s program of reducing tensions is seen as way to sell out the island by the pro-democracy, pro-independence forces. That is why hundreds of thousands have protested in Taipei in the last couple of months. Many of the local human rights and pro-Taiwan groups are worried about the democracy in Taiwan vanishing, as the ruling party appears to be using the judiciary to target opposition politicians.


Michael Turton
The View from Taiwan
http://michaelturton.blogspot.com

Acest articol este menit bine, dar de mult din el este complet greșit:

++++++++
O neînțelegere frecventă este că istoria Taiwan începe numai în 1949, cu stabilirea de Republica China de General Chiang Kai-shek.
++++++++

Republica China a fost înființată în 1911. Chiang Kai-shek, guvernul a mutat în Taiwan în 1949, după pierderea de război civil pentru a comuniștilor.

+++++++++++++++
Prin nu înseamnă atât. Taiwaneză de identitate a fost construit cu mult înainte, încă din 1624, când a Dutch East India Company stabilit aici. Au găsit un interesant populației, cu tradiții și un impresionant vibrante viața culturală. De asemenea portugheze a ajuns aici, atrași de bogăția de zvonuri, și a da un nume de pe insulă că rămâne bine-cunoscute până în ziua de azi: Ilha Formosa - Frumos Island.
++++++++++++++

Portugheză de vizitat Taiwan, dar niciodată nu a stabilit nici prezența aici. Spaniolă stabilite de ele însele și în partea de nord au fost evacuati de olandez în 1642.

De chinezi nu au fost găsite aici de olandeză (acolo au fost doar câteva sezonier colonisti), dar a venit aici ca în limba olandeză a stabilit un guvern de pe insula.

++++++++
În 1662, insula a văzut primul său contact cu China continentală, care a fost invadat de oameni manciuriană, asa ca o parte din vechiul continent chinez de administrare a fost obligat să ia refugiu pe insulă, însoțit de o armată condusă de Jheng Chen Gong.
++++++++

Acest lucru este total greșit. Zheng Chenggong manciuriană, dar nu a fost jumătate Han, jumătate-japonez, Taiwan și folosit ca bază pentru propriile sale Regatul după ce a învins-l Manchus. El a opus Manchus și în limba olandeză, engleză, dar a permis de a înființa un post de comercializare în Taiwan.

++++++++
La sfârșitul celui de-al doilea război mondial, Taiwan speciale deja a avut un statut economic și politic, și în 1943, în Declarația de la Cairo, de Președintele SUA, Franklin Roosevelt, premierul britanic W. Churchill și președintele-general, de China, Chiang Kai -shek, de acord că, la sfârșitul conflictului din Taiwan în mod legal ar deveni o parte din China.
+++++++++

Aceasta este, de asemenea, incorect. Declarația de la Cairo este pur și simplu o declarație de război are drept scop și nu are efect juridic internațional. SUA nu a putut da Taiwan departe, pentru că nu au propria-o, și China nu a putut accepta-o, pentru că nu a avut dreptul de a. Nimic legală a avut loc cu Declarația de la Cairo.

În lege, deținute de Japonia Taiwan de la 1895 până în aprilie 1952, când Tratatul de pace de San Francisco a intrat în vigoare. În acel moment, Japonia Taiwan a renunțat la suveranitatea și nici o putere ca a fost numit beneficiară. Acest lucru a fost cu intenție, și astăzi este de a politicii SUA care este starea lui Taiwan nedeterminata.

++++++++++
Partidul și Mao Zedong. 1948 de atac comunist a fost greu și repede: de la Peninsula Coreeană mongolă la desert, de vehicule blindate și de cavalerie, sprijinită de unități de către URSS tratate o teribilă lovitură de la Kuomintang. În 1949, înfrângerea a fost inevitabilă, și două milioane de suporteri de Kuomintang, împreună cu restul de trupe de General Chiang Kai-shek și Parlamentul din China a luat refugiu în Taiwan. În general au pierdut-o țară, dar nu o națiune: Taiwan.
++++++++++++

De asemenea, total gresit. Chiang pierdut pentru că a fost atât incompetent și corupt. Chiang nu a câștiga Taiwan, dar furat-o. Lui ocupație a insulei, în 1945, a fost sub autoritatea de aliați în timpul războiului. Chiang looted, ulterior, a forțelor de pe insulă, spumant un masiv revolta în 1947 în timpul cărora au avut Chiang insula de lider de ucis sau închis. Asasinatelor politice a fost pe de ani de zile după aceea.


+++++++++++
Desi a avut concentrat în întregime pe China, Taiwan general plasate pe cale de succesul economic: libertatea economica, de ajutor din SUA, un teren indraznete de reformă și a Programului de 10 de proiecte majore, care a pavat calea pentru o infrastructura moderna-toate aceste contribuit la taiwaneză miracol.
+++++++++++

Aceasta este cea mai mare mit. În anii 1950 și de bine în anii 1960, armata a luat 90% din bugetul de stat, și că a fost SUA ajutor pentru a economiei locale că a plătit pentru al datoriei publice, a sprijinit dezvoltarea infrastructurii, și susținute de Miracle Economie. Chiang deosebire de deschidere economică, oferindu-a opus taiwaneză acces la piețele de capital și, de multe opus și a reformei de idei SUA ajutor pentru administratori.


++++++++++++++
Obsesia cu China a stins practic afară din Taiwan a vietii politice. Noul președinte, Ma Ying-jeou, a anunțat o nouă pistă de politică externă, numit flexibil, care elimina tensiunile cu China.
+++++++++++++

Este greu de imaginat cum acest lucru ar putea să fi fost scris vreodată. China rămâne o problemă centrală și de faptul taiwaneză în viața politică, cu rachete 1300 a relevat la Taiwan, crimă și promițătoare pentru a taiwaneză în scopul de a anexa insula lor. Mama lui de program de a reduce tensiunile este văzut ca mod de a vinde pe insula de pro-democrație, forțele pro-independență. De aceea sute de mii au protestat în Taipei în ultimele două luni. Multe din locală pentru drepturile omului și pro-Taiwan grupuri sunt îngrijorat de democrația în Taiwan vanishing, ca partidul de guvernământ pare a fi utilizarea sistemului judiciar de a-țintă politicienii de opoziție.


Comentariul nr.2 - Wu Jing a spus în 19.11.2008 21:38:00:
Taiwan is a much better country than Romania.
Comentariul nr.3 - An Ma-Ke a spus în 19.11.2008 22:25:00:
We hope the freedom-loving people of Romania, who have also known terrible repression, murder and corruption, will lend a supportive voice to the people of Taiwan who are also trying to find freedom from its oppressors.
Comentariul nr.4 - Miller a spus în 20.11.2008 08:57:00:
The article is wonderfull Taiwan is the best opportunity for chinese people to have a normal life outside of the horrible Comunist Republic of China. Th=e author is absolutlly right it is time to forget the propagnada and the lies of Beijinig-Peking . Long live free Taiwan very well Romania please support Taiwan
Comentariul nr.5 - Brandusa a spus în 22.11.2008 03:45:00:
Great article I aspect that professor Anton Caragea will be our next foreign affairs minister, we need someone as competent and inteligent as him. I had watch him in Kazahstan, in Qatar, in Turqie and interviews with foreign journalists he is well respected and to only one to take Romania from the disaster on wich it is today. Anton caragea minister of foreign affairs is the only way
Comentariul nr.6 - Long Live ROC a spus în 03.12.2008 04:07:00:
Michael Turton is just a fat American cracker living in ROC.

Număr curent

Coperta ultimului număr al revistei

Semnal editorial

Emil Constantinescu - Pacatul originar, sacrificiul fondator

Revolutia din decembrie ’89: Pacatul originar, sacrificiul fondator este prima carte dintr-o serie de sapte volume dedicate ultimelor doua decenii din istoria României. „Nu am pretentia ca sunt detinatorul unui adevar politic, juridic sau istoric incontestabil, si sunt gata sa discut si sa accept orice documente, fapte sau marturii care pot lumina mai bine sau chiar altfel realitatea. Educatia mea stiintifica si religioasa m-a ajutat sa cercetez faptele în mod obiectiv, eliberat de ura sau intoleranta. Recunosc însa o anume încrâncenare în ceea ce am scris venita din durerea unui om care a trait în miezul evenimentelor si se simte lovit de acceptarea cinica a crimelor, abuzurilor, coruptiei si minciunii, sau de indiferenta la fel de cinica cu care sunt înca privite de catre o mare parte a societatii românesti.... Am scris aceste carti de pe pozitia victimelor mintite sau speriate, care nu-si cunosc sau nu-si pot apara drepturile. Le-am scris de pe pozitia milioanelor de români cinstiti care cred în adevar, în dreptate si în demnitate.” Emil Constantinescu (text preluat din Introducerea cartii).

Mircea Malita - Mintea cea socotitoare

MINTEA CEA SOCOTITOARE
de academician Mircea Malita, Editura Academiei Române, 2009
În volumul de eseuri „Mintea cea socotitoare“, aparut la Editura Academiei Române, acad. Mircea Malita formuleaza în crescendo o serie de întrebari grave ale timpului nostru: Daca omul este rational, de ce se fac atâtea greseli în economie
sau în politica?; Daca rationalitatea nu e de ajuns, care ar fi rolul întelepciunii?; Din viitorul imprevizibil putem smulge portiuni, daca nu certe, cel putin probabile?; Ce si cum învatam pregatindu-ne pentru viitorul nostru?; Este în stare omenirea sa îsi vindece crizele?; Ne asteapta oare un dezastru final? s.a. De-a lungul anilor, acad. Mircea Malita a staruit asupra acestor teme în lucrari recunoscute, însa acum o face raportându-se la dinamica realitatii imediate, inspirat de cuvintele lui Dimitrie Cantemir: „socoteala mintii mele, lumina dinlauntrul capului“. Eseurile sunt structurate pe patru parti - „Mintea senina“, „Metaforele mintii“, Mintea învolburata“ si „Privind înainte“. Finalul este de un optimism lucid care tine seama de potentialul de rationalitate si imaginatie al mintii umane si, fireste, de generatiile tinere care îl pot valoriza benefic.

Virginia Mircea - Poezii (vol.1 - Mișeii, vol.2 - Vise, îngeri, amintiri), Editura Cadran Politic Virginia Mircea - Poezii (vol.1 - Mișeii, vol.2 - Vise, îngeri, amintiri), Editura Cadran Politic

Această carte de poezie este seismograful de mare sensi­bilitate care înregistrează cele două întâlniri ale sufletului, deo­potrivă cu URÂTUL care ne schilodește ca ființă, ca neam, dar și cu FRUMU­SEȚEA sufletească nepoluată ce stă ca o fântână cu apă curată pe un câmp plin cu peturi și gunoaie nede­gra­da­bile. Ce poate fi mai dureros decât să surprinzi această fibră distrusă de aluviunile istorice încărcate de lașități, inerții, apatii, compromisuri devenite congenitale ale ro­mâ­nului? Vibrația ver­su­rilor, directețea lor, simplitatea dusă până în marginea cotidianului para­do­xal n-au efect distructiv asupra tonu­sului moral al cititorului, ci produc „neli­niștea cea bună”, cum ar spune Sfin­ții Părinți. Citești în revolta și durerea poetei un mănunchi admirabil de calități: o demnitate neînfrântă, o fizio­logie a verticalității și, mai ales, o inimă creștină, „o inimă din ceruri”, cum ar spune poetul latin. Căci, în aceast㠄inimă din ceruri”, există lacrimi deopotrivă pentru românul umi­lit, distrus până și-n visele lui, dar și pentru copilul din Gaza, cu sufletul și trupul chircite sub șenilele tancurilor unui război ce tinde să devină mai lung decât viața lui, ale unui „război-viață”, lacrimi pentru copilul evreu ce nu a putut fi salvat de la deportarea bestială, lacrimi pentru Tibetul sfâșiat. Și toate acestea fără impostura unui ecumenism sentimental, ci izvorâte din acel suspin curat românesc ce face esența lacrimii creștine. (Dan Puric)

ISLAMUL SI SOARTA LUMII - Fundamentalismul islamic ca ideologie politica

ISLAMUL SI SOARTA LUMII - Fundamentalismul islamic ca ideologie politica de Virginia Mircea "Islamul si soarta lumii - Fundamendamentalismul ca ideologie politca invita la o reflectie mai adanca asupra porceselor lumii contemporane. Judecata critica si independenta a autoarei a produs o lucrare de o veritabila investigatie stiintifica, exact la momentul in care tema tratata deseori fara solutii si perspective ocupa scena din fata a politicii si problemelor mondiale. Cititorii o pot aseza cu satisfactie in bliblioteca lor de referinta. Vor fi mult ajutati in intelegerea evenimentelor care ne sesizeaza in prezent si intr-un viitor in care tema nu se va desprinde de mersul lumii contemporane." (academician Mircea Malita)

Parteneri

Institutul de Proiecte pentru Inovatie si Dezvoltare The National Centre for Sustainable Development

Login: